Regulations Amending the Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations: SOR/2022-30
Canada Gazette, Part II, Volume 156, Number 6
SOR/2022-30 February 24, 2022
SPECIAL ECONOMIC MEASURES ACT
P.C. 2022-176 February 24, 2022
Whereas the Governor in Council is of the opinion that the situation in Ukraine constitutes a grave breach of international peace and security that has resulted in or is likely to result in a serious international crisis;
Therefore, Her Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, pursuant to subsections 4(1) footnote a, (1.1) footnote b, (2) and (3) of the Special Economic Measures Act footnote c, makes the annexed Regulations Amending the Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations.
Regulations Amending the Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations
1 Part 1 of the schedule to the Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations footnote 1 is amended by adding the following after item 202:
- 203 Taras Romanovych KOZAK
- 204 Volodymyr Mykolayovich OLIYNYK
- 205 Oleg Anatoliyovych VOLOSHYN
- 206 Vladimir Leonidovich SIVKOVICH
Application Before Publication
2 For the purpose of paragraph 11(2)(a) of the Statutory Instruments Act, these Regulations apply according to their terms before they are published in the Canada Gazette.
Coming into Force
3 These Regulations come into force on the day on which they are registered.
REGULATORY IMPACT ANALYSIS STATEMENT
(This statement is not part of the Regulations.)
The Russian Federation continues to violate the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine.
In November 2013, the refusal of then Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych to sign a landmark association agreement with the European Union (EU) set off major protests in Kyiv, leading to the fall of his government. In February 2014, Russian forces illegally invaded and occupied the Crimean peninsula of Ukraine. Following an unconstitutional “referendum” on March 16, 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a treaty purporting to incorporate Crimea into the Russian Federation on March 18, 2014. Canada, along with the international community, continues to condemn this illegal occupation and attempted annexation of Crimea.
In the wake of the annexation, Russian-backed militants quickly seized control of significant portions of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of eastern Ukraine, declaring the creation of the so-called Donetsk and Luhansk “People’s Republics.” Fraudulent “independence referendums,” initiated by pro-Russian separatists, were held on May 11, 2014, but gained no international recognition. Peace agreements were reached at talks held in Minsk, Belarus, in September 2014 and in February 2015 (the Minsk agreements). Since the illegal annexation of Crimea, Russia has also continued to sponsor violent pro-Russian separatist groups in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine.
Acting in coordination with the United States (U.S.) and the EU, Canada found that the illegal annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation constitutes a grave breach of international peace and security that has resulted or is likely to result in a serious international crisis. As a result, the Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations (the Ukraine Regulations) and the Special Economic Measures (Russia) Regulations (the Russia Regulations) were approved on March 17, 2014. Both regulations impose dealing prohibitions (an effective asset freeze) on designated individuals and entities. Any person in Canada and Canadians outside Canada are thereby prohibited from dealing in the property of, entering into transactions with, providing services to, or otherwise making goods available to listed persons. Amendments to the Russia Regulations were made on March 19, March 21, April 28, May 4, May 12, June 21, July 24, August 6, September 16, December 19, 2014; on February 17 and June 29, 2015; on March 18, 2016; on March 15, 2019; and on March 21 and 29, 2021. On March 21, 2021, the Russia Regulations were amended to add, for the first time, additional listings related to gross and systematic human rights violations in Russia. Amendments to the Ukraine Regulations were made on March 19, April 12, May 12, June 21, July 11, July 24, August 6, and December 19, 2014; on February 17 and June 29, 2015; on March 18 and November 28, 2016; on March 4, March 15 and June 25, 2019; on January 29, 2020; and on March 29, 2021.
The Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Permit Authorization Order and the Special Economic Measures (Russia) Permit Authorization Order, which came into force on March 17, 2014, authorize the Minister of Foreign Affairs to issue to any person in Canada and Canadian outside Canada a permit to carry out a specified activity or transaction, or any class of activity or transaction, that is otherwise prohibited pursuant to the Ukraine Regulations and the Russia Regulations.
Beginning in November 2021, Russia started massing a large number of troops (roughly 100 000) and military equipment in and around Ukraine (in illegally occupied Crimea and along Ukraine’s border), effectively encircling the country from three sides (north, east, south). On the north, Russia moved 30 000 additional troops and equipment into Belarus to prepare for the Russia-Belarus joint military exercises (February 10 to 20, 2022). The North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) Secretary General, Jens Stoltenberg, called the Russian manoeuver in Belarus “the biggest Russian deployment in the area since the Cold War” and added that nuclear-capable Iskander missiles were a part of it. Ukraine reported that Russia also moved an additional 10 000 troops into Crimea.
Despite intense high-level diplomatic efforts to resolve the crisis, Russia has now launched further military action against Ukraine. Diplomatic negotiations have been taking place along several tracks, including via (1) U.S.-Russia bilateral talks (e.g. the U.S.-Russia Strategic Stability Dialogue); (2) NATO; (3) the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); and (4) the Normandy Four format (Ukraine, Russia, Germany, France) for the implementation of the Minsk agreements. Talks failed to resolve the crisis and Russia has now launched a new military offensive against Ukraine. Russia’s direct military involvement in Ukraine and clear violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity continue to be a serious concern for the international community.
Since 2014, Canada has provided Ukraine with more than $890 million in multifaceted assistance to support Ukraine’s security, prosperity, and reform objectives. Canada is currently considering a number of potential response options to support Ukraine and deter Russian aggression, in close coordination with Canada’s partners and allies.
On January 27, 2022, Canada announced the extension and expansion of Operation UNIFIER, Canada’s non-combat military training and capacity-building mission to Ukraine. The renewal until March 2025 will support ongoing capacity building of Ukraine’s security forces, and also has the capacity to double the mission footprint from 200 to 400 Canadian Armed Forces trainers. As part of the Operation UNIFIER extension, Canada also announced enhanced diplomatic resources for Global Affairs Canada headquarters and Canada’s embassy in Kyiv to support a resilient and democratic Ukraine. In addition, Canada announced a further $50 million in international assistance for Ukraine, including $35 million in development and $15 million in humanitarian funding. This assistance is in addition to up to $120 million sovereign loan offered to Ukraine on January 21, 2022, to support its economic resilience and governance reform efforts.
In December 2021, the G7 Foreign Affairs ministers released a statement condemning Russia’s military buildup in and around Ukraine and reaffirmed their unwavering commitment to Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. The G7 Foreign Affairs ministers also reconfirmed their support for the full implementation of the Minsk agreements to end the conflict in eastern Ukraine. Foreign Affairs ministers further affirmed their readiness to take actions that would have massive consequences and severe cost to Russia in the event of any further military aggression against Ukraine. These commitments were reiterated in January 2022 at a NATO Foreign Affairs ministers meeting, as well as meetings of the NATO-Ukraine Commission and NATO-Russia Council. This year marks the 8th anniversary of Russia’s illegal invasion and attempted annexation of Crimea, as well as Russia’s support for the conflict in eastern Ukraine. Canada, along with several like-minded partners (e.g. the United Kingdom [U.K.] and the U.S.), has issued public Foreign Affairs minister statements condemning Russia’s illegal occupation and militarization of Crimea.
The duration of sanctions by Canada and like-minded partners has been explicitly linked to the complete implementation of the Minsk agreements by all parties, and the respect for Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, within its internationally recognized borders, which includes Crimea, as well as Ukraine’s territorial sea. The U.S., the U.K., Australia, and the EU have continued to update their sanction regimes against individuals and entities in both Ukraine and Russia.
- Demonstrate Canada’s commitment to a policy of non-recognition of Russia’s illegal occupation of Crimea, as well as Canada’s ongoing concern with Russia’s violations of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
- Align Canada’s actions with actions taken by international partners to underscore continued unity with Canada’s allies and partners in responding to Russia’s actions in Ukraine.
The Regulations Amending the Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations (the amendments) add four individuals to Part 1 of the Schedule of the Ukraine Regulations.
Global Affairs Canada engages regularly with relevant stakeholders including civil society organizations and cultural communities and other like-minded governments regarding Canada’s approach to sanctions implementation.
With respect to the amendments, public consultation would not have been appropriate, as publicizing the names of the listed persons targeted by sanctions would have likely resulted in asset flight prior to the coming into force of the amendments.
Modern treaty obligations and Indigenous engagement and consultation
An initial assessment of the geographical scope of the amendments was conducted and did not identify any modern treaty obligations, as the amendments do not take effect in a modern treaty area.
Regulations are the sole method to enact sanctions in Canada. No other instrument could be considered.
Benefits and costs
Sanctions targeting specific persons have less impact on Canadian businesses than traditional broad-based economic sanctions, and the amendments will have limited impact on the citizens of the country of the listed persons. It is likely that the individuals and entities listed have limited linkages with Canada, and therefore do not have business dealings that are significant to the Canadian economy.
Canadian banks and financial institutions are required to comply with the sanctions. They will do so by adding the newly listed individuals to their existing monitoring systems, which may result in a minor compliance cost.
The amendments will create additional costs for businesses seeking permits that would authorize them to carry out specified activities or transactions that are otherwise prohibited.
Small business lens
The amendments potentially create additional compliance costs for small businesses seeking permits that would authorize them to carry out specified activities or transactions that are otherwise prohibited. However, costs will likely be low, as it is unlikely that Canadian small businesses have or will have dealings with the newly listed individuals and entities. No significant loss of opportunities for small businesses is expected as a result of the amendments.
As there are no administrative costs associated with the regulatory amendments, the one-for-one rule does not apply.
Regulatory cooperation and alignment
While the amendments are not related to a work plan or commitment under a formal regulatory cooperation forum, they align with actions taken by like-minded partners.
Strategic environmental assessment
The amendments are unlikely to result in important environmental effects. In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a preliminary scan concluded that a strategic environmental assessment is not required.
Gender-based analysis plus (GBA+)
The subject of economic sanctions has previously been assessed for effects on gender and diversity. Although intended to facilitate a change in behaviour through economic pressure on individuals in foreign states, sanctions under the Special Economic Measures Act can nevertheless have an unintended impact on certain vulnerable groups and individuals. Rather than affecting Russia as a whole, these targeted sanctions impact individuals believed to be engaged in activities that directly or indirectly support, provide funding for or contribute to a violation of the sovereignty or territorial integrity of Ukraine. Therefore, these sanctions are unlikely to have a significant impact on vulnerable groups, as compared to traditional broad-based economic sanctions directed toward a state, and limit the collateral effects to those dependent on those targeted individuals.
The individuals added to Part 1 of the Schedule of the Ukraine Regulations are linked to Russia’s illegal occupation and attempted annexation of Crimea, and to the continuing violation of Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. Russia continues to consolidate its illegal control over Crimea, including through the construction of a bridge and railway tracks linking Russia and the Russia-occupied Crimean peninsula. These actions further contribute to the insecurity in Ukraine and the destabilization of the region by enforcing Russian laws and exercising Russian sovereignty on Ukrainian territory without the authorization of the Government of Ukraine. This includes the forced and illegal military conscription of the residents of Crimea, human rights abuses, and disruptions to maritime traffic and trade in the Azov Sea through the Kerch Strait, among other actions. The listings signal Canada’s strong condemnation of this ongoing Russian behaviour.
Implementation, compliance and enforcement, and service standards
The names of the listed individuals and entities will be available online for financial institutions to review and will also be added to the Consolidated Canadian Autonomous Sanctions List. This will help to facilitate compliance with the amendments.
Canada’s sanction regulations are enforced by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Canada Border Services Agency. In accordance with section 8 of the Special Economic Measures Act, every person who knowingly contravenes or fails to comply with the Special Economic Measures (Ukraine) Regulations is liable, upon summary conviction, to a fine of not more than $25,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than one year, or to both; or, upon conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years.
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