Canada Gazette, Part I, Volume 152, Number 36: GOVERNMENT NOTICES

September 8, 2018

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999

Final guideline for Canadian drinking water quality for cyanobacterial toxins

Pursuant to subsection 55(3) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the Minister of Health hereby gives notice of a final guideline for Canadian drinking water quality for cyanobacterial toxins. The technical document for this guideline is available on the Water Quality website. This document underwent a public consultation period of 60 days in 2016 and was updated to take into consideration the comments received.

September 6, 2018

David Morin
Director General
Safe Environments Directorate

On behalf of the Minister of Health

ANNEX

Guideline

A seasonal maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.0015 mg/L (1.5 µg/L) is established for total microcystins in drinking water. This guideline is considered to be protective of the general population, including young children.

Executive summary

Under the right environmental conditions, microcystins and other cyanobacterial toxins are naturally formed in water in the environment. They are produced and stored in the cells of cyanobacteria, and released when the cells rupture or die. Most scientific studies on cyanobacterial toxins focus on microcystins, which are generally regarded as the most important of the freshwater cyanotoxins.

This guideline technical document reviews and assesses the identified health risks associated with cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water. It assesses new studies and approaches and takes into consideration limitations in analytical methods and treatment technologies. Based on this review, the guideline for total microcystins in drinking water is established at a maximum acceptable concentration of 0.0015 mg/L (1.5 µg/L). Guidelines are not established for other cyanotoxins, including anatoxin-a and cylindrospermopsin, as health and exposure data on these toxins are limited.

Health effects

Studies on the health effects of cyanobacterial toxins focus primarily on microcystin-LR. A seasonal MAC is established for total microcystins, as studies have found liver toxicity in rats following short-term exposure to microcystin-LR. Canadian data indicate that exposure to microcystins from municipally treated drinking water supplies generally occurs only over a short duration. This is because blooms are seasonal (typically spring to fall), lasting on average less than 30 days, and protocols are in place to address any exceedances. The MAC is consistent with the duration and exposure scenarios for microcystins in Canadian drinking water during a typical cyanobacterial bloom season. The MAC is based on health effects in adults and considered protective of all Canadians.

Currently available science suggests that adults are more sensitive to the effects of microcystins than younger age groups. However, infants can ingest a significantly larger volume of water per body weight, up to five times more drinking water per kilogram of body weight than an adult. Consequently, as a precautionary measure during a bloom event, when levels of total microcystins in treated water are detected above a reference value of 0.0004 mg/L (0.4 µg/L), drinking water authorities should inform the public in the affected area that an alternate suitable source of drinking water (such as bottled water) should be used to reconstitute infant formula.

Exposure

Exposure to microcystins is primarily through ingestion of drinking water and can also occur during recreational water activities such as swimming. Some exposure may occur through foods affected by contaminated water (primarily fish and shellfish, and some crops) and natural health products that have been contaminated (including algal supplements). Microcystins can also be present as aerosols generated by wind and during showering or swimming, thereby providing contact through inhalation. However, inhalation of contaminated drinking water is not a significant source of exposure.

Cyanobacterial blooms have been observed in drinking water sources across Canada, except in Prince Edward Island, where all drinking water originates from groundwater sources, and in the territories. In the rest of Canada, exposure to microcystins generally occurs over short periods (less than 30 days), as the conditions required for bloom formation are seasonal, requiring warm temperatures.

Analysis and treatment

There are many analytical methods capable of measuring total microcystins in drinking water to levels well below the MAC. Analysis should be conducted for all of the measurable microcystin variants that are both dissolved in the water and bound within the cyanobacterial cells using a laboratory validated method. Similarly, water should be treated to remove both intracellular (cell-bound) and dissolved microcystins. The most effective way to remove microcystins is to remove the cyanobacterial cells intact, without damaging them, to prevent the release of additional microcystins into the water. Treatment for intracellular microcystin removal may consist of conventional or membrane filtration, while removal of dissolved microcystins would require activated carbon, oxidation, biodegradation or small pore membrane processes. Well operated and optimized drinking water treatment plants can remove total microcystins to concentrations well below the MAC.

Options available for individual households obtaining their drinking water from a surface water source affected by a cyanobacterial bloom would include switching to an alternative water supply, changing the location of the water intake pipe and installing a drinking water treatment system. However, the treatment of water supplies for the removal of cyanobacteria and microcystins at the residential scale is complex. Residential-scale treatment devices that can provide supplemental treatment for the removal of dissolved microcystins from municipally treated water are available. However, there are no drinking water treatment systems available that are certified for the removal of cyanobacterial cells and dissolved microcystins in non-municipal (i.e. untreated) water supplies.

International considerations

Internationally, there are no regulatory limits currently in place for cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water. The World Health Organization has established a provisional guideline value of 0.001 mg/L for total microcystin-LR. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council established a guideline of 0.0013 mg/L for total microcystins in drinking water, expressed as microcystin-LR toxicity equivalents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established short-term drinking water health advisories: for children less than six years old, the health advisories are 0.0003 mg/L for microcystins and 0.0007 mg/L for cylindrospermopsin; for the rest of the population, health advisories of 0.0016 mg/L for microcystins and of 0.003 mg/L for cylindrospermopsin were established. The European Union has not established limits for cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water.

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT, 1999

Proposed guideline for Canadian drinking water quality for 1,4-dioxane

Pursuant to subsection 55(3) of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, the Minister of Health hereby gives notice of a proposed guideline for Canadian drinking water quality for 1,4-dioxane. The proposed technical document for this guideline is available from September 7, 2018, to November 9, 2018, on the Consulting with Canadians website. Any person may, within 60 days after publication of this notice, file with the Minister of Health written comments on the proposed document. Comments must be sent to the Secretariat of the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water, either by email at HC.water-eau.SC@canada.ca, or by regular mail to the Water and Air Quality Bureau, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue West, A.L. 4903D, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9.

September 6, 2018

David Morin
Director General
Safe Environments Directorate

On behalf of the Minister of Health

ANNEX

Proposed guideline

A maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.050 mg/L (50 µg/L) is proposed for 1,4-dioxane in drinking water.

Executive summary

1,4-Dioxane is a synthetic chemical that is not found naturally in the environment. It is produced in Canada and imported from other countries, primarily to be used as an industrial and commercial solvent. It can also be present as a contaminant in cosmetics, food additives, and food packaging materials, or on food crops treated with pesticides containing 1,4-dioxane. Its release to the environment is mainly from chemical waste disposal practices, leaks from landfills, or wastewater discharges. Because of its chemical properties, 1,4-dioxane travels rapidly through soil and can quickly reach groundwater sources.

The guideline technical document reviews and assesses all identified health risks associated with 1,4-dioxane in drinking water. It incorporates available studies and approaches and takes into consideration the availability of appropriate treatment technology. Based on this review, the proposed guideline for 1,4-dioxane in drinking water is a maximum acceptable concentration of 0.050 mg/L (50 μg/L).

Health effects

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 1,4-dioxane as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (group 2B) based on sufficient evidence in laboratory animals and inadequate evidence in humans.

The proposed MAC of 0.050 mg/L is based on studies of liver effects in rats that occur before the development of cancer, and is protective of both cancer and non-cancer health effects of 1,4-dioxane. Studies in humans are limited to the non-cancer health risks associated with exposure via inhalation, which affect the liver and kidneys. Although these studies are not suitable for the establishment of a proposed MAC, they support the health effects found in animals exposed through ingestion.

The most severe health effect associated with exposure to 1,4-dioxane in animals is cancer. Science indicates that 1,4-dioxane only causes cancer above a certain level of exposure. As the non-cancer health effects on the liver are the most sensitive health effects and are precursors of the cancer effects, they are deemed appropriate as the basis for a proposed MAC that is protective of cancer and non-cancer health effects.

Exposure

The primary sources of exposure to 1,4-dioxane are inhalation of outdoor air or vapours during cleaning activities, ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water, and dermal contact with consumer products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane are generally higher in groundwater than surface water because of its chemical properties, as it volatilizes from water surfaces and can move rapidly in soil to reach groundwater sources.

Although skin contact and inhalation are potential routes of exposure to 1,4-dioxane, the intake proportion of 1,4-dioxane from drinking water through these routes is not significant and is not considered in this assessment.

Analysis and treatment

Analysis of 1,4-dioxane can be challenging because of its chemical properties, and appropriate sample preparation methods must be used to achieve low reporting limits. Available analytical methods for 1,4-dioxane in drinking water can measure levels well below the proposed MAC.

The structure of 1,4-dioxane makes it resistant to biodegradation in the environment and its physical and chemical properties make it difficult to remove from water using conventional drinking water treatment technologies.

At the municipal level, the effective treatment of 1,4- dioxane requires consideration of alternative treatment technologies, such as advanced oxidation processes and, to a lesser extent, synthetic adsorbents. These technologies are capable of achieving treated water concentrations below the proposed MAC. Recent research also indicates that reverse osmosis membranes may be capable of removing a large proportion of 1,4-dioxane from water.

At the residential level, there are no certified residential treatment devices for the reduction of 1,4-dioxane from drinking water. However, available data suggest that 1,4-dioxane may be effectively removed by reverse osmosis at the point of use and by granular activated carbon at the point of entry.

International considerations

The World Health Organization has established a guideline value of 0.05 mg/L taking into consideration cancer and non-cancer effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and the European Union have not established limits for 1,4-dioxane in drinking water.

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY

OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL

Appointments

Name and position Order in Council

Chahwan, Nancy

2018-1054

Chief Human Resources Officer

 

Charbonneau, The Hon. Louise A.

2018-1058

Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories

 

Chief Justice

 

Donoghue, Christine

2018-1055

Deputy Commissioner of Revenue

 

King, Janet

2018-1046

Associate Deputy Minister of Public Works and Government Services to be styled Associate Deputy Minister of Public Services and Procurement

 

MacDonald, Lori

2018-1056

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship

 

Associate Deputy Minister

 

Roy, Guylaine

2018-1047

Deputy Minister of Tourism, Official Languages and La Francophonie

 

Langues officielles et de la Francophonie

 

Sharkey, The Hon. Neil A.

2018-1059

Nunavut Court of Justice

 

Chief Justice

 

Veale, The Hon. Ronald S.

2018-1060

Supreme Court of Yukon

 

Chief Justice

 

August 31, 2018

Diane Bélanger
Official Documents Registrar

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

BANK ACT

Domestic systemically important banks

Notice is hereby given, pursuant to subsection 484.1(4) of the Bank Act (the “Act”), that the Bank of Montreal, The Bank of Nova Scotia, the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, the National Bank of Canada, the Royal Bank of Canada and The Toronto-Dominion Bank have, pursuant to subsection 484.1(1) of the Act, been designated as domestic systemically important banks.

These designations were made on August 21, 2018.

Carolyn Rogers
Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

BANK ACT

Bank of Montreal — Order providing for minimum capacity to absorb losses

Pursuant to subsection 485(1.2) of the Bank Act, the Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions, on behalf of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, provides that the Bank of Montreal’s minimum capacity to absorb losses is as follows:

This Order is effective November 1, 2021.

August 21, 2018

Carolyn Rogers
Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

BANK ACT

The Bank of Nova Scotia — Order providing for minimum capacity to absorb losses

Pursuant to subsection 485(1.2) of the Bank Act, the Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions, on behalf of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, provides that The Bank of Nova Scotia’s minimum capacity to absorb losses is as follows:

This Order is effective November 1, 2021.

August 21, 2018

Carolyn Rogers
Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

BANK ACT

Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce — Order providing for minimum capacity to absorb losses

Pursuant to subsection 485(1.2) of the Bank Act, the Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions, on behalf of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, provides that the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce’s minimum capacity to absorb losses is as follows:

This Order is effective November 1, 2021.

August 21, 2018

Carolyn Rogers
Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

BANK ACT

National Bank of Canada — Order providing for minimum capacity to absorb losses

Pursuant to subsection 485(1.2) of the Bank Act, the Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions, on behalf of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, provides that the National Bank of Canada’s minimum capacity to absorb losses is as follows:

This Order is effective November 1, 2021.

August 21, 2018

Carolyn Rogers
Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

BANK ACT

Royal Bank of Canada — Order providing for minimum capacity to absorb losses

Pursuant to subsection 485(1.2) of the Bank Act, the Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions, on behalf of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, provides that the Royal Bank of Canada’s minimum capacity to absorb losses is as follows:

This Order is effective November 1, 2021.

August 21, 2018

Carolyn Rogers
Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

BANK ACT

The Toronto-Dominion Bank — Order providing for minimum capacity to absorb losses

Pursuant to subsection 485(1.2) of the Bank Act, the Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions, on behalf of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, provides that The Toronto-Dominion Bank’s minimum capacity to absorb losses is as follows:

This Order is effective November 1, 2021.

August 21, 2018

Carolyn Rogers
Assistant Superintendent of Financial Institutions

PRIVY COUNCIL OFFICE

Appointment opportunities

We know that our country is stronger — and our government more effective — when decision-makers reflect Canada’s diversity. The Government of Canada has implemented an appointment process that is transparent and merit-based, strives for gender parity, and ensures that Indigenous peoples and minority groups are properly represented in positions of leadership. We continue to search for Canadians who reflect the values that we all embrace: inclusion, honesty, fiscal prudence, and generosity of spirit. Together, we will build a government as diverse as Canada.

We are equally committed to providing a healthy workplace that supports one’s dignity, self-esteem and the ability to work to one’s full potential. With this in mind, all appointees will be expected to take steps to promote and maintain a healthy, respectful and harassment-free work environment.

The Government of Canada is currently seeking applications from diverse and talented Canadians from across the country who are interested in the following positions.

Current opportunities

The following opportunities for appointments to Governor in Council positions are currently open for applications. Every opportunity is open for a minimum of two weeks from the date of posting on the Governor in Council Appointments website.

Position

Organization

Closing date

Chairperson

Canada Lands Company Limited

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

Canada Post Corporation

 

Vice-Chairperson

Canadian International Trade Tribunal

September 16, 2018

Chairperson

Canadian Race Relations Foundation

 

Regional Member (Quebec)

Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission

 

Chairperson

Civilian Review and Complaints Commission for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

 

Director

CPP Investment Board

 

Director

Farm Credit Canada

September 27, 2018

Commissioner

Financial Consumer Agency of Canada

 

Members

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada

September 14, 2018

Commissioners and Chairperson

International Joint Commission

 

Members (appointment to roster)

International Trade and International Investment Dispute Settlement Bodies

 

Director

Marine Atlantic Inc.

September 14, 2018

President and Chief Executive Officer

Marine Atlantic Inc.

 

Chairperson

National Arts Centre Corporation

 

Vice-Chairperson

National Arts Centre Corporation

 

Chief Executive Officer

National Capital Commission

 

Director

National Gallery of Canada

 

Commissioner of Competition

Office of the Commissioner of Competition

 

Superintendent

Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy Canada

 

Veterans’ Ombudsman

Office of the Veterans’ Ombudsman

 

Usher of the Black Rod

Senate

 

Chairperson

Telefilm Canada

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

VIA Rail Canada Inc.

 

SUPREME COURT OF CANADA

SUPREME COURT ACT

Commencement of sessions

Pursuant to section 32 of the Supreme Court Act, notice is hereby given that the upcoming three sessions of the Supreme Court of Canada, for the purpose of hearing and determining appeals in 2018 and 2019, shall commence on the following days:

August 30, 2018

Roger Bilodeau, Q.C.
Registrar